現代維吾爾族自我認同的基礎

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現代維吾爾族自我認同的基礎

林昂

捷克查理士大學漢學系

二十世紀前半葉,現代維吾爾族如何興起於新疆,長久以來一直是廣受學者注意並探討的熱門話題。然而,至今只有少部分研究有參考維吾爾語史料。這些我們今日口中的「維吾爾族」人們,在近世初期的1884年到1949年間如何定位自己的身分?民族觀念在他們心目中有多重要?民族意識能與實際上發生的民族自覺思潮相互呼應嗎?以上只是許多懸而未決問題中的一部分,而我們可以藉由檢視維吾爾語史料釐清一些事實。

這次演講參考幾筆由維吾爾高知識份子撰寫的文獻,主題在闡述近現代維吾爾族群認同觀的形成。第一份資料主要根據維吾爾史家Molla Musa Sayrami的作品《哈米德史》,提及1864年至1877年新疆地區大規模的穆斯林動亂,如何暫時削弱滿清政府在該地的統治力量。報告的第二份資料檢視Nezerkhoja Abdusemet、Abdukhaliq Uyghur以及Memtili Tewpiq在1910至1935年間的短篇論著,這些作品揭示了當時維吾爾社會對現代主義思潮認同度的提升。我分析這些文獻的作者們對新疆地區土生土長的突厥穆斯林在地認同的看法,以評估他們國家意識的強度,並揭開蘊藏於他們思想中,屬於民族主義的部分。


Bases of Modern Uyghur Identity

Ondrej Klimes

Institute of East Asian Studies, Faculty of Arts, Charles University, Czech Republic

Rise of modern Uyghur nation in Xinjiang during the first half of the twentieth century is an intriguing phenomenon which has been previously approached from several perspectives. However, so far only a small amount of research has been based on scrutiny of Uyghur language sources. How did the people, whom we today call Uyghur, perceive their identity in the early modern period between 1884 and 1949? How important was concept of nation to them? Did their national consciousness correspond to factual national movement? These are only some of unanswered questions which can be at least partially cleared by closer inspection of Uyghur language material.

This presentation strives to shed light on the initial phase of modern Uyghur ethnic identity formation. It is based on study of several texts authored by elite Uyghur intellectuals. The first source is Molla Musa Sayrami’s Tārīkh-i Hamīdī, record of a large-scale Muslim insurgency that occurred in Xinjiang in 1864-1877 and resulted in the Qing dynasty’s temporary loss of control over the region. The second part of the presentation examines shorter texts written by Nezerkhoja Abdusemet, Abdukhaliq Uyghur and Memtili Tewpiq between 1910 and 1935, which reflect increasing exposure of Uyghur society to contemporary modernist trends. Analysis of these writings seeks to illustrate how their authors understood identity of sedentary Turkic Muslims native to Xinjiang, to assess the intensity of their national consciousness and uncover traits of nationalism in their thinking.

主講人介紹:

林昂,捷克籍,2004年獲得捷克查理士大學文學碩士學位,目前在該校攻讀漢學博士學位。他選定的博士論文主題為《覺醒之地:維吾爾族對民族與民族主義的看法(1911-1949)》。